Cambodia’s ecosystems are one of most biodiverse and valuable in Southeast Asia, including mountains (Cardamom Mountain being of significant biodiversity interest due to its species richness), evergreen and deciduous forests, swamp forests and a vibrant marine and coastal ecosystem. Threats to its biodiversity include human population pressure on land, illegal mining, illegal logging, pollution and climate change. Under BES-Net II, the country will receive support to promote the engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities in its ongoing assessment process, which is being supported by UNEP-WCMC. UNESCO will provide technical backstopping support to the engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities in the assessment process. Cambodia is also a priority country for future catalytic support under BES-Net II’s BES Solution Fund to promote the uptake of national ecosystem assessment recommendations once the process is finalized.