Azerbaijan has high biodiversity levels, with ecosystems including forests, freshwater, wetlands, swamp, grassland and semi-desert, mountain and marine and coastal ecosystems. These ecosystems are threatened by land degradation, habitat fragmentation due to poor agricultural practices, unsustainable levels of use, pollution, invasive species and climate change. Under BES-Net II, the country will receive support to promote the engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities in its ongoing national ecosystem assessment process, which is being supported by UNEP-WCMC. UNESCO will provide technical backstopping support to the engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities in the assessment process. Azerbaijan is also a priority country for future catalytic support under BES-Net II’s BES Solution Fund to promote the uptake of national ecosystem assessment recommendations once the process is finalized.