Jordan is adversely impacted by climate change, climate models of the Third National Communication of Jordan on climate change indicate that warmer summers relative to other seasons are extremely likely to occur including, decrease of precipitation, heat waves, the maximum number of dry days is likely to increase per year, and consecutive dry days. An increase in the water deficit up to 30% during over the 20 years is predicted as highly likely.
Jordan is signatory to UNFCCC, the government has ratified, inter alia, the Convention in 1993, Kyoto Protocol in 2004, and the Paris Agreement in 2016. Moreover, Jordan has joined the Climate & Clean Air Coalition in 2012 and produced several policies, legislations and national reports in response to the obligations of the global collective collaboration frameworks. Jordan submitted the Initial, Second and Third National Communication Reports to UNFCCC in 1998, 2009 and 2014 respectively.
At the national level, several steps have been taken in response to the global environment obligations, the most important can be summarized as follows:
Preparation of the Initial National Communication, prepared by the General Corporation for Environment Protection (GCEP) (which later became the Ministry of Environment), 1996-1997.
Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, prepared by MoEnv in 2000 to complete the Initial National Communication.
Establishing a pilot biogas facility at Russifa domestic landfill site, implemented by the Greater Amman Municipality and commissioned in 2000.
Technology needs assessment (TNA) and technology transfer (TT), prepared by MoEnv, 2004-2005.
National Capacity Self-Assessment for Global Environmental Management (NCSA), implemented by MoEnv in 2005 to assess the capacity constraints and potentials for implementing the three international environmental conventions on biodiversity, climate change, and desertification.
Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Jordan’s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC, implemented by MoEnv, 2006-2009.
National Environmental, Economic, and Development Study (NEEDS) for Climate Change, prepared by the Ministry of Environment, 2010.
Developing Policy-relevant Capacities for the Implementation of Global Environmental Conventions, implemented by the Ministry of Environment in cooperation with UNDP and with support from GEF, 2010.
Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Jordan’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC, implemented by MoEnv in cooperation with UNDP and with support from GEF 2012-2015.
Jordan`s first Climate Change Policy, supported by UNDP/GEF, 2013.
Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Jordan’s First Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC, implemented by MoEnv, 2015-2017.
Mainstreaming Rio Convention into National Sectoral Polices in Jordan Project, 2015-2019.
Moreover, Jordan submitted its first Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) in Nov 2016 with the support of The German International Cooperation Agency (GIZ) and it is expected that Jordan will submit its Second NDC in 2020. Within the INDC, Jordan nationally determines to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by a bulk of 14 % until 2030. This contribution of GHGs reduction will be unconditionally fulfilled at, maximally, 1.5 % by the Country’s own means compared to a business as usual scenario level. However, Jordan, conditionally and subject to availability of international financial aid and support to means of implementation, commits to reduce its GHGs emissions by additional, at least, 12.5 % by 2030.
The Government of Jordan with the support from UNDP has developed pioneering National Policy on Climate Change in 2013. The policy has been developed with a dual objective in mind. The first is to strengthen Jordan’s capacity to respond to the detrimental impacts of climate change expected to add a multiplying effect to current challenges in sectors like water and agriculture. The second is to strengthen Jordan’s global stewardship in addressing options to reduce emissions while achieving sound and sustainable developmental objectives especially in the various sectors of energy. Since 2013, the policy outlined the backbone for climate change agenda in the country, which has been seriously under implementation by the Ministry of Environment.
As the policy document will be out-dated by the end of 2020 year, the UNCT with the lead of UNDP has commenced the process to support Jordan in updating the National Policy on Climate Change Management in Jordan. To do so, UNDP is seeking international expert; to provide an overview of international best practices related to climate change management in order to make informed comparisons between the current situation in Jordan and those practices that have proved effective in other countries, to lead and facilitate the process of updating the National Policy on Climate Change Management.