The food system’s negative impact on biodiversity is increasing over time. Conserving biodiversity requires immediate and widespread action to reduce the biodiversity footprint of food consumption, but biodiversity has historically been neglected in sustainability assessments. We combine high-resolution estimates of the biodiversity footprint with food system scenario modeling to predict the consequences of two key food system sustainability actions in the United States: diet shifts and food waste reduction. Taking these actions may benefit biodiversity in some places and harm it in others. The results of this study can help decision-makers understand the trade-offs we must navigate to balance human health, economics, and environmental sustainability and help consumers understand how their diets and food waste behaviors influence global biodiversity.