Long-term fertilization is known to impact the biodiversity and community structures of soil organisms, which are responsible for multiple soil ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However the relationship between the alterations of soil organisms and ecosystem multifunctionality remains unclear, especially in the case of long-term fertilization. To explore the contribution of soil organismal biodiversity and community structures to ecosystem multifunctionality, we took soil samples from a nearly 25-year field fertilization experiment. Organic matter significantly improved the soil ecosystem multifunctionality. Ecosystem multifunctionality was found to be closely linked to the biodiversity and communities of soil organisms within the major ecological clustering of soil organisms (Module 1) according to the trophic co-occurrence network, rather than the entire community of soil organisms. This indicated that ecological clusters of soil organisms within the network were critical in maintaining soil ecosystem multifunctionality. The application of organic fertilization could enrich specialized soil organisms and increase interactions of soil organisms in the ecological cluster. As a result, our findings emphasize the role of ecological clusters in the soil organismal co-occurrence network in controlling soil multifunctionality after long-term fertilization, presenting a novel perspective on the link between soil biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality.