The contradiction between urban expansion and ecological protection in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH) is increasingly acute, which has become one of the main problems restricting regional development, and sustainable development of ecosystem services is the key to increasing human well-being. Based on GIS platform and multiple models, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of four key ecosystem services (water conservation, soil conservation, habitat quality, and plant net primary productivity) in different ecological regions of BTH in recent 20 years, quantifies the impact of different climate factors and land-use change on ecosystem services (ESs), and discusses the primary ecosystem hotspots and ecological security pattern. The results showed that the interannual variation of water conservation (WC) and plant net primary productivity (NPP) increased from 2000 to 2020, while the change of soil conservation (SC) was not obvious, which was mainly controlled by climate factors, WC and SC were more affected by precipitation, and the temperature was the key factor affecting NPP. Habitat quality (HQ) presented a significant downward trend; it was mainly attributed to the deterioration of the ecological environment caused by accelerated urbanization expansion. According to hotspot analysis, it could be found that WC was the fastest-growing ecosystem service function in BTH, and NPP would become the factor with the greatest contribution to ecological importance in the future. The important protected areas and main ecological sources of ecological security pattern were mainly distributed in Yanshan-Taihang mountain area, which was consistent with the key areas of ecosystem services. In this study, the temporal and spatial differences of ecosystem service in BTH were demonstrated in a more intuitive way and provided scientific guidance for decision makers to formulate effective ecological protection policies in different regions.