In arid and semi-arid regions, vegetation restoration will have a significant impact on ecosystem services (ESs). Accurate assessment of the relationship and driving mechanism between ESs will play an important role in the implementation of subsequent vegetation restoration projects and ecosystem management. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and identify the relationship between ESs, and explore the impact and driving mechanism of ecological restoration on the relationship between ESs. Taking the middle reaches of the Yellow River as the study area, this study analyzed three ESs including: Net Primary Productivity (NPP), soil conservation (SC), and water yield (WY), in the vegetation restoration area (VRA) in the middle reaches of the Yellow River for 20 years (2000–2010 and 2010–2020 years(a)). Taking the ecological restoration unit (ERU) as the evaluation unit, we evaluated the impact of three vegetation restoration models on ESs. Using geo-detectors to identify the economic, social and natural drivers that affect the relationship between ESS. The results showed the following: (1) Different vegetation restoration models will lead to significant differences in the restoration rate for ESs. They will lead to an increase in the recovery rate of NPP and SC. The first vegetation restoration mode and the third planting restoration mode will reduce the restoration rate for the WY. (2) The three vegetation restoration models will enhance the synergistic relationship between NPP and SC. They will weaken the trade-off relationship between NPP and WY, SC and WY. (3) Temperature, precipitation, and NDVI will affect the changes in ESs in VRAs. The ESs trade-off-synergy relationship will be affected by precipitation, NDVI, and GDP. This study showed that, with the implementation of vegetation restoration projects, ESs in time and space and the complex heterogeneity of ESs will affect ecosystem management. The results of this study will be helpful for the implementation of subsequent vegetation restoration projects and provide scientific advice for ecosystem management.