Climate warming and extreme hydrological events are threatening the sustainability of wetlands across the globe. However, whether climate warming will amplify or diminish the impact of extreme flooding on wetland ecosystems is unknown. Here, we show that climate warming significantly reduced wetland resistance and resilience to a severe flooding event via a 6-year warming experiment. We first found that warming rapidly altered plant community structure by increasing the dominance of low-canopy species. Then, we showed that warming reduced the resistance and resilience of vegetation productivity to a 72-cm flooding event. Last, we detected slower postflooding carbon processes, such as gross ecosystem productivity, soil respiration, and soil methane emission, under the warming treatment. Our results demonstrate how severe flooding can destabilize wetland vegetation structure and ecosystem function under climate warming. These findings indicate an enhanced footprint of extreme hydrological events in wetland ecosystems in a warmer climate.