The biodiversity of temperate forests in Central Europe has been influenced by human activities since the onset of forest formation in the postglacial era (). Numerous forest species had thus become extinct a long time ago and this is not only the case of big mammals such as wolves, bears or aurochs (). The trend of biodiversity decline has been accelerating during the last two centuries when the human activities resulted in distinctive and consistent exploitation and transformation of Central European landscapes () which has been taken into account by the latest strategic documents of the European Union, e.g., EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 (). The enforcement of appropriate management measures or changes in forest management in particular areas has faced difficulties in proving relationships between a specific forest management type and the presence or absence of particular species (, ). Moreover, conflicting beliefs such as forest management being negative for biodiversity versus forest management being considered as sustainable (also in terms of ecological functions) managing for biodiversity and thus negatively affecting forest productivity have been apparent.