There is increasing evidence that spatial and temporal dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystem functions play an essential role in biodiversity–ecosystem-functioning (BEF) relationships. Despite the known importance of soil processes for forest ecosystems, belowground functions in response to tree diversity and spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological processes and conditions remain poorly described. We propose a novel conceptual framework integrating spatiotemporal dynamics in BEF relationships and hypothesized a positive tree species richness effect on soil ecosystem functions through the spatial and temporal stability of biotic and abiotic soil properties based on species complementarity and asynchrony. We tested this framework within a long-term tree diversity experiment in Central Germany by assessing soil ecosystem functions (soil microbial properties and litter decomposition) and abiotic variables (soil moisture and surface temperature) for two consecutive years in high spatial and temporal resolution. Tree species richness and identity had significant effects on soil properties (e.g., soil microbial biomass). Structural equation modeling revealed that overall soil microbial biomass was partly explained by (1) enhanced temporal stability of soil surface temperature and (2) decreased spatial stability of soil microbial biomass. Overall, the spatial stability of soil microbial properties was positively correlated with their temporal stability. These results suggest that spatiotemporal dynamics are indeed crucial determinants in BEF relationships and highlight the importance of vegetation-induced microclimatic conditions for the stable provisioning of soil ecosystem functions and services.