This study explored the regional differences in the forest industry and management via a Multiple Factor Analysis approach. The dataset used comprises all Russian regions and 34 variables that comprehensively describe the situation in the sector. Based on the Multiple Factor Analysis, the variables contributing most to the spatial heterogeneity in Russian forestry were divided into industrial and forestry factors. The regions leading in the development of the timber industry are mainly located in the Northwestern and Southeastern parts of Russia. They show similarities in high logging volumes, investment attractiveness, and competitiveness in foreign markets. However, a divergence was found between the Northwestern regions and the Siberian and the Far East territories in terms of forest management factors. The Western part of Russia benefits from the density of the population and infrastructure, and proximity to the national financial centers and European markets. By comparison, Asian Russia suffers from labor shortages caused by negative demographic trends and the negative consequences of climate change, resulting in an increase in forest losses and a lack of control, finance, and transport accessibility due to the vast territory. To alleviate regional inequalities, we propose the introduction of private ownership of forests, support for investment projects, and human capital development.