Pollinator conservation has become a key challenge to achieve sustainable agricultural landscapes and safeguard food supplies. Considering the potential negative effects of pollinator decline, international efforts have been developed to promote Agri-environmental measures and pollinator-friendly management practices. However, little effort has been devoted to farmers’ perceptions and knowledge about pollinators, or to farmers’ role in enhancing pollination. We administered 376 face-to-face questionnaires in four areas of Spain with different dominant pollinator-dependent crops, to assess the factors behind farmers’ perceptions, knowledge, and practices adopted to promote pollination. Overall, 92.7% of the respondents recognized that pollinator insects are necessary for crop production, and 73.4% perceived pollinator decline in their farms. We found that farmers had moderate knowledge about pollinators (6.1 ± 1.8, on a 1–10 scale). The most applied practices to promote pollinators were reducing insecticide spraying (53.2% of respondents), diversifying crops (42.8%), and increasing fallow fields (39.1%). Factors such as education, age, concern about the pollinator crisis, and professional dedication to agriculture strongly influenced farmers’ knowledge and current application of pollinator-friendly practices. Implications of our results for the ongoing reform of the Common Agricultural Policy are discussed, highlighting the need to increase the engagement and trust of farmers through communication and technical assistance.