A diverse assemblage of insect species attack sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide (Rajamohan, 1976; Rogers, 1992). Since sunflower is native to North America, a large pest complex has evolved on wild sunflower and has moved from wild ancestors to commercial cultivars. In other countries and to a lesser extent in North America, some insects have adapted to utilize sunflower as an alternative host. Many of these insects develop or increase in number on adjacent or earlier-planted crops and then after senescence move to sunflower. The successful management of insect pests depends on correctly identifying the pest, understanding the pest’s biology, field sampling of pest densities, and selecting the appropriate control methods. The use of integrated pest management assures that control decisions will be based on economics and achieved with minimal disruption to the environment, the least possible harm to nontarget organisms, and a reduced probability that secondary or minor pests will likely become a problem. The integrated pest management philosophy will assure that the most effective control strategies are management techniques that combine resistant cultivars, cultural control, biological control, and the application of insecticides only when pest populations have reached economic injury levels. Insecticides approved for usage on specific insects are constantly changing based on the registration of new products or loss of current registration, therefore the local county agent, crop consultant, or state extension service should be contacted for current recommendations. The discussion of insects associated with a sunflower that follows is organized by the continent or region in which they occur and by the part of the plant attacked (see insert with color plates).