The objective of this paper was to identify the factors affecting rice growers’ attitudes and practices towards water and soil conservation in the Fumanat Plain of Guilan Province, Iran. Data were collected through a survey questionnaire addressing a cross section of 400 rice growers of the Fumanat Plain in four districts. Data were analyzed using both summary statistics and multivariate statistical procedures while content validity of the statements was first determined by a group of experts of water and soil conservation. It was found that more than 23% of the variance of attitudes towards water and soil conservation could be determined by a linear combination of variables included in a regression equation. Identifying the factors affecting rice growers’ attitudes is suggested as a way of integrating rice cultivation into rural development. From a practical point of view, the above mentioned implications are of great importance generally for society, policy makers and related economic sectors.