The effect of forest harvesting on the composition and structure of a temperate coniferous forest in Mexico was evaluated after three harvesting periods from 2007–2015. In this forest, we identified seven families and eight tree species. The dominant species is Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. which is also the most important commercial species. Harvesting was oriented towards increasing the abundance of the dominant pine species, resulting in a decrease in forest diversity and favoring a transition to a monospecific forest. The tree canopy structure following harvesting showed a gradual recovery in the number of individuals in each diameter class, but the diameter increment may not necessarily guarantee a sustainable harvest because cutting cycles appear to be too short. The size of harvesting gaps and overall forest cover determine the presence and/or abundance of regeneration (small seedlings, seedlings, saplings, large saplings, and young trees). The establishment of Pinus pseudostrobus and Ilex discolor Hemsl. differed according to their ecological groups.