We examined causes and levels of tree mortality one year after thinning and prescribed burning was completed in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) forests at Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Oregon, U.S. Four blocks of five experimental units (N = 20) were established. One of each of five treatments was assigned to each experimental unit in each block. Treatments included thinning from below to the upper management zone (UMZ) for the dominant plant association based on stand density index values for ponderosa pine followed by mastication and prescribed burning: (1) 50% UMZ (low-density stand), (2) 75% UMZ (medium-density stand), (3) 75% UMZ Gap, which involved a regeneration cut, (4) 100% UMZ (high-density stand), and (5) an untreated control (high-density stand). Experimental units were thinned in 2011 (block 4), 2012 (block 2), and 2013 (blocks 1 and 3); masticated within one year, and prescribed burned two years after thinning (2013–2015). A total of 395,053 trees was inventoried, of which 1.1% (4436) died. Significantly higher levels of tree mortality occurred on 100 UMZ (3.1%) than the untreated control (0.05%). Mortality was attributed to prescribed fire (2706), several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (1592), unknown factors (136), windfall (1 tree), and western gall rust (1 tree). Among bark beetles, tree mortality was attributed to western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte) (881 trees), pine engraver (Ips pini (Say)) (385 trees), fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) (304 trees), mountain pine beetle (D. ponderosae Hopkins) (20 trees), Ips emarginatus (LeConte) (1 tree), and Pityogenes spp. (1 tree).