Honey bees are agriculturally important, both as pollinators and by providing products such as honey. The sustainability of beekeeping is at risk through factors of global change such as habitat loss, as well as through the spread of infectious diseases. In China and other parts of Asia, beekeepers rely both on native Apis cerana and non-native Apis mellifera, putting bee populations at particular risk of disease emergence from multi-host pathogens. Indeed, two important honey bee parasites have emerged from East Asian honey bees, the mite Varroa destructor and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. As V.destructor vectors viral bee diseases, we investigated whether another key bee pathogen, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), may also have originated in East Asian honey bee populations. We use a large-scale survey of apiaries across China to investigate the prevalence and seasonality of DWV in managed A.mellifera and A. cerana colonies, showing that DWV-A prevalence was higher in A. mellifera, with a seasonal spike in prevalence in autumn and winter. Using phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we show that while China and East Asian DWV isolates show comparatively high levels of genetic diversity, these bee populations are not a source for the current global DWV epidemic.