This is a review article based on literature (national and international) and an empirical approach. A general overview of research priority areas on biodiversity and approaches and tools to provide information for forest policy implementation on biodiversity are briefly summarized. Challenges for biodiversity research and related policy in Europe and Greece are depicted. General information on forests, protected areas, and forest management in Greece is also presented. Major actions and measures for the conservation of forest biodiversity in Greece are described and analyzed. The implementation of forest policy in Greece (including the adoption of an International constitutional frame) in relation to biodiversity protection and climate change is also analyzed. Priorities identified by the Strategic Plan of Rural Development 2007-2013 in Greece in order to adapt to climate change, are also presented. Furthermore, the National institutional framework (Legislation) and strategic targets for biodiversity conservation in Greece are synoptically presented. Finally, major conclusions and future challenges are highlighted.